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The large U-shaped kidney usually lies in the hypogastrium, anterior to the inferior lumbar vertebrae
Normal ascent of these fused kidneys is prevented because they are caught by the root of the inferior mesenteric artery
7% of persons with Turner's syndrome have horseshoe kidneys.
kidney fails to ascend from its origin in the true pelvis;
kidneys are joined, but the ureters enter the bladder on each side
Horseshoe kidney, the most common fusion anomaly
renal parenchyma on each side of the vertebral column is joined at the corresponding (usually lower) poles
Crossed fused renal ectopia is the 2nd most common fusion anomaly
ureteropelvic junction obstruction is present
pyeloplasty is the treatment of choice
Fused pelvic kidney (pancake kidney) is much less common
hydronephrosis will cause discomfort and pains in the side
treatment is directed at the accompanying diseases, such as urinary tract infections and hydronephrosis.
Horseshoe kidney occurs in about one in 500 children
Sixty percent of girls with Turner syndrome have horseshoe kidneys
Trisomy 18 a serious chromosome abnormality involving defects in nearly all organ systems, including horseshoe kidney in 20 percent of children affected.